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first aid training

First Aid Training

A theoretical approach to first aid training conducted during Flight Attendant Training by major airline and flight attendant training institutes

 

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ALCOHOL INTOXICATION

Symptoms:

  • The odor of alcohol on breath
  • Warm feeling
  • Stupor condition, incoherent, uncoordinated
  • In early stages, breathing is slow and deep, pulse is strong, and face is moist and flushed
  • In later stages, breathing is shallow, pulse becomes weak and rapid, and face becomes dry and pale
  • Extreme cases manifested by hallucinations, delirium tremors (D.T.' s), partial or compete unconsciousness, and may experience bleeding from the mouth

First Aid:

  • Maintain open airway.
  • Administer oxygen if victim is pale.
  • Allow victim to sleep.
  • NOTE: Alcoholism often masks the symptoms of injury, illness, diabetic coma or shock, as they all produce symptoms that resemble acute alcohol intoxication. Check victim in the presence of a witness for medic alert emblem/card and follow the directions given.

ASTHMA

Cause:

  • Asthma is a multi-factional disease which may be triggered by allergy, exercise, cold air, smoke or infection.

Symptoms:

  • Severe shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, difficulty in breathing
  • Victim is usually anxious and is afraid he is suffocating. This tends to prolong the attack.

First Aid:

  • Victim usually has had attacks before and carrys his own medication with him. Assist victim in taking his medication.
  • Administer low flow of oxygen.

EXTERNAL BLEEDING

Dangers:

  • The two main dangers in any wound are bleeding and infection.

Types of Bleeding:

  • Arterial bleeding will be bright red and will flow in spurts.
  • Vein bleeding will be dark red and will flow in a steady stream under much lower pressure than arterial bleeding.

Ways to Control Bleeding:

  • Direct Pressure - taught in an actual scenario in any flight attendant training course
  • Direct pressure in conjunction with elevation of the limb is the quickest and most efficient means of controlling external bleeding. It prevents loss of blood without interfering with blood circulation.
  • Put on latex gloves.
  • Press a sterile pad of gauze directly over the wound.
  • Apply pressure with your hand to slow and stop bleeding.
  • After the bleeding has been controlled, apply additional layers of cloth to form a good-sized covering and then bandage snugly.
  • If blood saturates the entire compress, do not remove it; add more layers of gauze and continue direct hand pressure even more firmly.

Elevation of Limb:

  • Elevation is used to reduce the blood pressure in the injured area and thus aid in slowing down the loss of blood. Therefore, unless there is evidence of a fracture or possible spinal injuries, a severely bleeding wound on the head, neck, arm or leg should be elevated. To elevate you should:
  • Put on latex gloves
  • Raise the affected area above the level of victim's head
  • Continue direct pressure.

Digital Pressure:

  • If direct pressure and elevation do not stop bleeding, digital pressure can be applied to the pressure points.

Main pressure points are:

Arm - Brachial artery located midway on the inside of the upper arm. The pressure point is about half-way between the armpit and the elbow, in the groove between the muscles.

To use this pressure point, continue to use direct pressure and elevation. Reach in from behind the arm and place the flat part of your fingers over the pressure point. Press in hard and pull back toward the bone.

Leg - Femoral artery-located on the crease between the body and the leg, where the femoral artery crosses over the pelvic bone on the front of the body. To use the leg pressure point, lean forward and push hard with the heel of your hand into the femoral area.

Nosebleeds:

May occur spontaneously, or as a result of an injury, lack of humidity, or exposure to high altitude, especially in the young.

  

First Aid:

  • Put on latex gloves.
  • Keep quiet and in a sitting position.
  • Apply direct pressure by pinching nostrils for several minutes.
  • Apply direct pressure immediately under nose.
  • Apply cold, wet compresses over bridge of nose.
  • Instruct victim to breathe through his mouth.
  • Don't blow nose.
  • If an unaccompanied minor has a nosebleed, the party meeting the child should be notified and a Flight Attendant Report of Irregularity should be completed.

BROKEN BONES OR FRACTURES

Types of Fractures:

Simple - One in which the bone is broken but doesn't protrude and break through the skin. (Improper handling of a simple fracture may cause a compound fracture). Hence one should understand the intricacies of a flight attendant job.

Compound - One in which the bone is broken and does protrude and break through the skin. This type of fracture is more dangerous due to the chance of infection and bleeding.

Simple Fracture

First Aid:

  • Put on latex gloves
  • Use blankets, pillows, sprints, or slings to immobilize the injured area. Elevate if possible.
  • For added support, carefully wrap pillow around fractured area and immobilize joints above and below.
  • Secure with gauze.

Compound Fracture

First Aid:

  • Put on latex gloves
  • Use blankets, pillows, sprints, or slings to immobilize the injured area, if possible. Cover lightly with gauze or compress bandage.
  • Carefully elevate if possible to help control bleeding.
  • Treat for shock.
  • Never apply a splint or sling too tight on either simple or compound fractures as circulation may be impaired.

Strains and Sprains

A strain is an injury to muscle, either torn or stretched. A sprain is an injury to soft tissue around a joint; swelling and pain will occur.

First Aid:

  • The correct first-aid treatment for all new injures is always ice and cold therapy for the first 24 to 48 hours.
  • Apply cold compresses or ice-filled bag for 20 minutes every hour.
  • Give asprin or non-aspirin.
  • Elevate if possible.
  • When in doubt, always treat as a fracture.

 

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