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emergency procedure training

Emergency Handling procedures for Flight Attendants

Aviation emergency training forms part of any Flight Attendant Training curriculum carried out by major airlines and flight attendant training institutes

 

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InFlight Medical Emergency Reports

Airlines will maintain records for a period of 24 months on each medical emergency occurring during flight time resulting in use of the emergency medical kit required under Appendix A, diversion of the aircraft, or death of a passenger or crew member. These records shall include a description of how the medical kit was used, by whom, and the outcome of the medical emergency. These records will be maintained by Airline Dispatch Center.

Airlines will submit these records, or a summary thereof, to the FAA Flight Standards District Office within 30 days after the end of each 12 month period during the 24 months specified in the preceding paragraph.

On Board Wheelchair

    Responsibility:

  • The "A" Position Flight Attendant will check the EMK (Emergency Medical Kit). On-Board Wheelchair

    Use:

  • To provide the disabled customer with a means of lav accessibility

    Location:

  • One secured under the aft right row of seats.

    Check:

  • Restraining straps are locked (when present).

    Operation for use:

  • Place wheels on floor with footrest facing up.
  • Place foot in middle of footrest.
  • Pull up on seat back until chair clicks in place.
  • Lock red brake bar in down position.
  • Transfer customer using the "three-man assist".
  • Place arm rest down and adjust back handles into position for pushing.
  • Secure customer with velcro straps.
  • Release brake and push.

    Securing after use:

  • Lock red brake bar in down position.
  • Readjust back handles in secured position with arm rests in up position.
  • Transfer customer to seat using the "three-man assist" and secure velcro straps on wheelchair.
  • Foot on footrest..

 

Seat Belt Extensions, Oxygen Demo Masks and Demo Safety Information Card.

    Use:

  • For customer safety briefing demonstrations during Emergency RA.
  • Seat Belt extension for customers.

    Location:

  • In the forward or aft wind screen and forward or aft galley stowage compartment.

    Check:

  • For presence of at least two.

 

CABIN EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT LOCATIONS

1. Flightdeck Key(l) Taped inside water shut-off valve
compartment, FWD galley.
 
2. Halon Fire Extinguisher(2) One secured FWD Overhead Bin A/C L
one secured AFT OHB A/C L
 
3. Portable Oxygen Bottles(4) Two secured FWD OHB A/C R one secured
mid cabin OHB A/C L one secured AFT OHB A/C R
 
4. H20 Fire Extinguisher(1) One secured FWD OHB A/C L
 
5. Protective Breathing Equip.(3) Two secured FWD OHB A/C L
one secured AFT OHB A/C L
 
6. FirstAid Kit(2) One secured FWD OHB A/C R
one secured AFT OHB A/C R
 
7. Emergency Flashlights(4) Two secured above FWD jump seat
two secured above AFT jump seat
 
8. CPR Mask(2) One secured FWD OHB A/C L one
secured AFT OHB A/C R
 
9. Box of Latex Gloves*(2) One box secured FWD OHB A/C R
one box secured AFT OHB A/C R
 
10 Emergency Medical Kit One secured on the flightdeck
(or in aft OHB A/C R)
 
11. On-Board Wheelchair One secured in the aft close
(or behind the last row of seats YC R)
 
12. Crew Life Vests(4) Each vest is located behind the seat
back of each jump seat (if applicable)
 
13. Door Slides(4) One mounted on each door exit
 
14. Customer Flotation Devices Seat bottom cushions or vests
 
15. Biohazard kit(2) One secured FWD OHB A/C R one
secured AFT OHB A/C R
 
16. PA Microphone(2) Within FA Control Panels, FWD and AFT
 
17. Emergency Light switch(1) Within FA Control Panels, AFT

*These boxes of gloves are in addition to the pair of latex gloves that are sealed within the FAK's and are not to be considered as "no go" items
 

 

Escape Straps

    Use:

  • The escape straps may be used for the pilots' evacuation from the flightdeck through the sliding window.

    Location:

  • Recessed in the ceiling above both the Captain's and First Officer's seat.

Halon

Location:

  • One secured to the bulkhead behind the first Officer.

Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE)

Location:

  • One secured to the Observer's seat, First Officer side.

Fire Axe

Location:

  • One secured to the bulkhead in the flightdeck behind the captain. (To be used by flightdeck crew only.)

Gear Viewers

Nose Gear Viewer

  • A view port in the flightdeck floor that provides visual inspection of nose gear downlock components.

Main Gear Viewer

  • A view port located under the carpet in the aisle, three (3) windows aft of the overwing exit row.
  • Both nose gear and main gear viewer are the responsibility of the flightdeck. A Flight Attendant may be asked to pull up the carpet and prepare the main gear viewer for inspection by the flightdeck.

Emergency Lighting Systems

The emergency lighting system is designed to provide lighting when the aircraft power fails during an emergency.

The system consists of:

Stationary Emergency Signs

    Location:

  • Over each cabin door and overwing exit - 300 series.
  • On the cabin ceiling in the forward, overwing and aft areas of the aircraft.
  • 2 feet above floor level at each door and overwing window exit.

    Operation:

  • Designed to come on automatically when aircraft power fails in an emergency.
  • May be activated by the emergency light switch on the aft Flight Attendant Control Panel.
  • Effective use 10 minutes.

 

Emergency Light Switch

    Location:

  • Toggle switch under a red cover on the aft Flight Attendant Control Panel.

    Operation:

  • Activate for evacuation only after the aircraft has come to a complete stop.
  • "B" Flight Attendant
  • Lift red cover.
  • Move toggle switch to "On" position.

Egress Lighting

    Location:

  • There is a strip of lighting located in the aisle either aircraft left or aircraft right with white lights providing guidance to red lights. Red lights indicate doors to overwing window exits. Certain aircraft have red lights only at the overwing window exits.

    Operation:

  • Designed to come on automatically when aircraft power fails during an emergency.
  • May be activated by the emergency light switch on the aft Flight Attendant Control Panel.
  • Effective length of time 10 minutes.

INFLIGHT EMERGENCIES

GENERAL

  • The most important function of each crew member is to provide the greatest amount of safety to their customers. Safety extends from the prevention and care of the most minor mishaps to the more serious emergency situations that might arise.
  • Only those who have a firm understanding and working knowledge of emergency and standard procedures will be able to handle each emergency situation successfully and with a calm, confident, authoritative attitude. Anytime a crew member is incapacitated, his/her duties are the responsibility of the remaining crew.
  • In that no two emergencies are exactly alike, the procedures given in this Manual are intended primarily as guidelines and in no way should restrict the use of the Flight Attendant's own personal judgement and initiative. The procedures may be modified as you feel necessary.
  • When an irregular cabin situation occurs that is a safety hazard to the flight and/or customers follow the chain of command. The purpose of a "chain of command" is to determine who the decision makers are during both routine and emergency situation. The chain of command, in priority, is as follows:
  •   *Captain
  •   *First Officer
  •   *"A" Flight Attendant
  •   *"B" Flight Attendant
  •   *"C" Flight Attendant

Notification of Captain

  • Four rings to the flight deck indicates a cabin emergency situation.
  • Captain will answer the interphone.
  • Give as complete an assessment of the situation as possible.
  • Continue to keep advised.

Inflight Operational Occurrence Report

  • Complete and turn in to a supervisor within 24 hours after the termination of that sequence.
  • Turn in immediately upon request from inflight management.
  • Give a factual accountant of the occurrence.

Press or News Media

Do not make any written or verbal statements to the press or news media without prior briefing or approval from a member of the airlines management.

TURBULENCE

Weather conditions can cause turbulence in the air which can affect the flight of the aircraft. These turbulent conditions vary in intensity and are classified as light, moderate, severe, or extreme.

Light Turbulence:

Is a condition during which occupants may be required to use seatbelts, but objects in the aircraft remain at rest.

Moderate Turbulence:

Is a condition during which occupants of the aircraft require seat belt and are occasionally thrown against the belt. Unsecured objects in the aircraft will be moved about.

Severe Turbulence:

May cause the aircraft to be momentarily out of control. Occupants are thrown violently against the seat belts and back into their seats. Unsecured objects in the aircraft will be tossed about.

Extreme Turbulence:

Is rarely encountered. When it occurs, the aircraft is violently tossed about and is extremely difficult to control. Structural damage may result.

Procedures to Follow During Turbulence

Unanticipated

When other than light turbulence is encountered unexpectedly:

  • Immediately take the nearest seat or jump seat and fasten seat belt and shoulder harness if on jump seat.
  • Direct customers to fasten seat belts.
  • Do not take time to secure galleys.
  • Remain seated until notified by the flight deck
  • Check customers and cabin upon verification from flight deck.
  • If , in your opinion, a lengthy time has passed without turbulence, and you have received no instructions from the flight deck, you may use the interphone if on a jump seat, and request information.

Anticipated

When notified by the Captain that turbulence is anticipated:

  • Coordinate with flight deck a PA announcement advising customers of the situation and to fasten their seat belts securely.
  • Visually check customers to be sure their seat belts are fastened.
  • Secure all loose items in the cabin and galley.
  • Take your Flight Attendant jump seat and fasten seat belt and shoulder harness.
  • Remain seated until notified by the flight deck.
  • Check customers and cabin upon notification from flight deck,
  • If , in your opinion, a lengthy time has passed without turbulence, and you have received no instructions from the flightdeck, you may use the interphone if on a jump seat, and request information.

UNUSUAL SOUNDS OR SIGHTINGS

  • Report any unusual sounds that you notice or your customers report (ie. anything out of the ordinary, thumping, hissing, etc.) to the flight deck.
  • Report any unusual sightings that you notice or your customers report (i.e. oil, ice on wings, etc) to the flight deck.

SLOW AIR LEAKS

  • Report any air leaks to the flight deck.
  • If flight deck advises, reseat customers away from the air leak.
  • If the air leak is from an exit that is next to the Flight Attendant jump seat, the Flight Attendant should sit in a customer seat for landing. Select a customer seat that will allow you to reach the exit before any customer can do so.
  • Do not place any articles in the source of the leak.
  • Hypoxic symptoms may be experienced.
  • A decompression of the cabin may result.

EMERGENCY DECOMPRESSION

Emergency decompression is a rapid loss in cabin pressure. It is unlikely that an involuntary loss of pressurization will occur, however, a decompression may follow some failure of the fuselage such as cracked window panes, malfunction to the aircraft pressurization system, window or door pressure leak or structural damage to the fuselage.

Physical Changes to the Cabin Environment and Customers

  • Explosive noise followed by a rapid movement of cabin air toward the hole.
  • Rush of air will carry with it paper, loose clothing, dirt and other light objects lying in its path.
  • Sudden decrease in cabin air temperature.
  • Fogging due to moisture condensation in the expanding cabin atmosphere.
  • Refer to First Aid section for hypoxia symptoms

Physiological Symptoms of a Decompression

  • Headache
  • Respiratory changes and difficulties
  • Excessive Sleepiness
  • Light headed or dizzy sensations
  • Blue coloring of skin, lips, fingernails
  • Indifference and a feeling of well-being
  • Fatigue
  • Deterioration of the senses
  • Personality changes
  • Unconsciousness

Flight deck Warning System

  • The warning horn in the flight deck sounds when the cabin altitude reaches 10,000 feet.
  • The "Fasten Seat Belt", "No Smoking", and lavatory "Return to Seat" signs will be turned on by the flight deck.
  • The oxygen masks from the oxygen compartments throughout the aircraft will drop automatically when the cabin altitude reaches 14,000 feet.
  • Flight Attendants should follow Emergency Decompression Procedures.

Procedures to Follow During an Emergency Decompression

  • All Flight Attendants should immediately take oxygen from the nearest 02 mask and secure themselves.
  • While proceeding to the nearest available mask, give commands "USE OXYGEN MASK", "NO SMOKING", "FASTEN SEAT BELT"
  • Remain seated until advised by the captain that oxygen is no longer required. Turn cabin lights to bright.
  • Check and assist passengers.
  • Administer First Aid Oxygen as required
  • Do not repack aircraft oxygen masks after the masks have dropped. Oxygen masks must be repacked by qualified personnel
  • Customers should place the mask over their nose and mouth and breathe normally. They should continue wearing the mask until advised by the crew.
  • Once oxygen from the cabin emergency system is no longer required, customers requiring additional oxygen will be administered first aid from a POB.
  • Any time the 02 masks deploy, maintenance must repack them

NOTE: Generation of the individual chemical units may cause a "burning" odor which may be easily mistaken for odors from a fire. In addition, the chemical canisters can become very hot. Caution should be taken to avoid touching any chemical generator.

FIRE PREVENTION AWARENESS

Awareness is the Flight Attendant's most valuable tool for preventing inflight fires. All articles that may contribute to the cause of a fire, such as matches, must be properly stowed so as to lessen the risk of unintentional ignition.

On designated flights where smoking is permitted, (i.e. charter flights) the Flight Attendant must:

  • Be aware of customers smoking in the aisles
  • Be alert to customers entering lavatories with cigarettes.
  • Watch for customers failing asleep while smoking.

When reporting any indications of a potential problem, clearly define the area of the smoke origin, density and odor. Give as much information as possible.

NOTE: A common occurrence on landing is condensation from the air vents. Because this may look like smoke to the customers, an explanation may be required.

Classification of Fires

Class A: Wood, paper, fabric.

  • Use H20 fire extinguisher or Halon fire extinguisher - May use water or other liquids for small fire.

Class B: Gas, oil, other flammable liquids.

  • Use Halon fire extinguisher-NEVER use H20, it will tend to spread the burning fuel or oil.

Class C: Electrical

  • Shut off the current if possible, such as by pulling the appropriate galley circuit breakers for a galley fire. - Use Halon fire extinguisher.
  • NEVER use H20 as it will conduct electricity.
  • General Cabin Smoke/Fire Fighting Procedures
  • Report any uncertain cabin smoke to the flight deck immediately.
  • Attempt to locate source of smoke. A PBE may be useful.
  • If fire is present, classify fire.
  • Fight the fire with the nearest appropriate fire extingusher and remove electrical galley power as applicable.
  • Have additional fire fighting equipment available.
  • Another Flight Attendant should simultaneously notify the Captain, (4 rings) and maintain communication throughout the incident.
  • Inspect area thoroughly to ensure extinguishment. A H20 extinguisher or other liquids may be used on a class "A" fire
  • If the fire is not immediately extinguished, circumstances permitting, remove all POBS from the vicinity of the fire
  • Advise customers to stay seated unless it is necessary to move some customers away from smoke, fumes or flames.
  • Instruct customers to breathe through clothing or wet paper towels brought up around the face.
  • A customer requiring oxygen due to smoke inhalation should be reseated away from the fire-affected area.

Galley Smoke/Fires

  • Any time a galley circuit breaker pops, it should be reset only once. The Captain must be notified.
  • If smoke or fire is evident, the Flight Attendant should first attempt to shut off electrical power from the galley by pulling the circuit breaker on the galley wall.
  • If the galley master circuit breaker cannot be pulled due to smoke or fire, request that the Captain remove galley electrical power, specify galley.
  • Whenever fighting galley fires, always use the Halon fire extinguisher.
  • Do not return galley power after any incident involving circuit breakers, without checking with the Captain first.

Smoke Detectors

  • Installed in each lavatory is a household type smoke detector designed to detect lavatory fire. The concentrated particles contained in dense smoke, hair spray or lavatory deodorizer spray may activate the alarm. The alarm will sound until the smoke or fumes have cleared or until the flight deck crew deactivates the appropriate circuit breaker. The Flight Attendant is not to deactivate the smoke detector. Always advise the Captain when the smoke detector activates, even if it is a "false alarm" and always ensure that no possible hazard exists before resuming cabin duties.
  • NOTE: Cigarette smoke will not always activate the alarm.
  • Smoke Detector Alarm Procedures/Lavatory Fires
  • If the lavatory smoke detector is activated, the Flight Attendant will:
  • Check the lavatory for occupancy by knocking on the door and announcing, "Flight Attendant" - I have to enter.
  • Feel the lavatory door with the back of the hand at different heights to estimate the intensity of a possible fire.
     
  • IF THE DOOR is COOL:
  • If customer does not open door, pause, then open door cautiously.
  • If it is suspected that a customer has been smoking, follow the appropriate procedures as stated in the Customer Care section.
  • Check for presence of smoke and/or fire (a PBE may be useful).
  • In the trash can
  • Under the sink
  • All accessible compartments
  • Use fire fighting procedures as necessary.
  • Alert the Captain and advise of the status.
     
  • IF THE DOOR IS MODERATELY HOT:
  • Open door cautiously (a PBE may be useful).
  • Extinguish contents of Halon into the lavatory, low to the floor
  • Alert the Captain and advise of the status.
     
  • IF DOOR IS VERY HOT, OR FIRE IS OUT OF CONTROL:
  • Keep lavatory door shut.
  • Advise Captain immediately.
  • Surround door and jump seat area with wet blankets.
  • NOTE: Flight Attendants and customers may need to be reseated. Flight Attendants will need to occupy a customer seat allowing closest accessibility to an exit.

Seat Fires

  • Kick the seat back forward, when possible, to help inhibit the flame height.
  • Use the Halon extinguisher.
  • Follow with the H2O extinguisher to saturate.

Flash Fire

  • A flash fire may occur when fuel enters the aircraft through the right wing. The overwing window exits, especially aircraft right, will probably be unavailable and should be blocked off immediately. Remember when referring to an engine fire, engine #1 is aircraft left and engine #2 is aircraft right. In the event of an emergency such as a flash fire, common sense and good judgement will determine the necessary procedures to follow.
  • The "A" Position Flight Attendant will start deplaning customers immediately through the forward entry door.
  • The "B" and "C" Flight Attendants are to evaluate the situation and go to their assigned emergency exits if necessary. If exit is usable, proceed with evacuation of customers as quickly as possible.
  • Escape slides are disarmed at this time and MUST be armed if they are to be used.

Fluorescent Light Ballast Fires

  • Most flourescent light fires will be self extinguishing as they are caused by a burning of the gas inside the bulb cavity. Once the gas is "burned off", the fire risk is no longer present.
  • Notify the Captain.
  • Turn lights to "OFF."
  • Use a Halon fire extinguisher if necessary.

APU Torching

Torching is a burst of flames expelled from the aircraft's auxiliary power unit (APU). The occurrence is very similar to an automobile backfire. You will not see torching if it occurs on the 737 because the APU is at the tail of the aircraft. However, should you or one of your customers see a temporary burst of flames on another aircraft, you will be able to explain the occurrence and reassure them that everything is all right 

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